Women at High Risk for Breast Cancer—What the Primary Care Provider Needs to Know. (J Am Board Fam Med. 2009 Jan-Feb;22(1):43-50, PDF).
In patients with BRCA1 mutations, the average cumulative risk of developing cancer by the age of 70 ranges between 55% and 85% for breast cancer and between 16% and 60% for ovarian cancer. In BRCA 2-mutation carriers, the risks range between 37% and 85% for breast cancer and between 11% and 27% for ovarian cancer
Hereditary breast cancer- clinical features and risk reduction strategies (Annals of Oncology 22 (Supplement 1): i31–i36, 2011, PDF).
The management of BRCA mutation carriers is evolving: it reflects the available evidence as well as the bias of different ethical value systems and structural characteristics of the different health care systems operating worldwide.
Clinical management recommendations for surveillance and risk-reduction strategies for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer among individuals carrying a deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation (J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2007 Jan;29(1):45-60, PDF).
Among women at high-risk of breast cancer (according to the Gail model105), early results of the STAR trial indicate that five years of tamoxifen or raloxifene prophylaxis are similarly protective against invasive breast cancer but that tamoxifen is more effective than raloxifene in reducing the risk of non-invasive breast cancer. However, raloxifene demonstrates a toxicity profile superior to that of tamoxifen.